Systematic and careful recording of measurements or counts of relevant quantities is often the crucial difference between pseudosciences such as alchemy and science such as chemistry or biology. Scientific measurements are usually tabulated, graphed or mapped, and statistical manipulations such as correlation and regression are performed on them. Measurements can be made in a controlled environment such as a laboratory or on more or less inaccessible or unmanipulable objects such as stars or human populations. Measurements often require specialized scientific instruments such as thermometers, spectroscopes, particle accelerators or voltmeters, and advances in a scientific field are usually closely linked to their invention and improvement. “Observations around the world clearly show that climate change is happening, and rigorous scientific research shows that greenhouse gases emitted by human activities are the main driver.” (2009)2 Scientific journals use a peer-review process in which scientists` manuscripts are submitted for review by scientific journal editors to scientific colleagues (usually one to three and usually anonymous) who are familiar with the field. In some journals, the journal itself selects reviewers; while in others (especially highly specialized journals), the author of the manuscript may recommend revisers. Reviewers may or may not recommend publication, or they may recommend publication with proposed changes, or sometimes publication in another journal. This standard is practiced by different journals to varying degrees and can ensure that the literature remains free of obvious errors and generally improves the quality of the material, especially in journals that apply the standard most strictly. The peer review process can have limitations when research is considered outside the conventional scientific paradigm: “groupthink” issues can interfere with the open and fair deliberation of new research findings.  2 TRUE VALUE – quantity used in the general agreement of the scientific communityCURCURE – proximity of measurements to the true value of what is measured PRECISION – proximity of measurements to each other Often, the scientific method is used not only by a single person, but also by several people working together directly or indirectly. Such cooperation can be seen as an important part of a scientific community. In such an environment, different standards of scientific methodology are used.
In anthropology and sociology, after fieldwork in an academic scientific laboratory in Latour and Woolgar, Karin Knorr Cetina conducted a comparative study of two scientific fields (namely high-energy physics and molecular biology) to conclude that epistemic practices and reasoning within the two scientific communities are sufficiently different to introduce the concept of “epistemic cultures”. contrary to the idea that a so-called “scientific method” is unique and a unifying concept.  *Technically, a “consensus” is a general disagreement, but the scientific method moves us away from it towards an objective framework. In science, facts or observations are explained by a hypothesis (a statement about a possible explanation of a natural phenomenon), which can then be tested and retested until it is refuted (or refuted). If an experiment cannot be repeated to obtain the same results, it means that the original results may have been wrong. As a result, it is common for a single experiment to be conducted multiple times, especially if there are uncontrolled variables or other evidence of experimental errors. For significant or surprising results, other scientists may also try to replicate the results for themselves, especially if those results are important for their own work.  Replication has become a controversial topic in the social and biomedical sciences, where treatments are given to groups of individuals.
As a rule, an experimental group receives the treatment,. B for example a drug, and the control group receives a placebo. John Ioannidis pointed out in 2005 that the method used has led to many ideas that cannot be replicated.  The term “scientific method” originated in the 19th century, when an important institutional development of science took place and terminologies emerged that established clear boundaries between science and non-science, such as “scientific” and “pseudoscience.”  In the 1830s and 1850s, when Baconianism was popular, naturalists such as William Whewell, John Herschel, John Stuart Mill debated “induction” and “facts” and focused on how to generate knowledge.  In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a debate about realism vs. . .